No. Domains are renewed only for periods that are multiples of 1 year.
The domain is renewed not from the date of payment, but from the expiration date of the previously paid period.
In most domain zones, within 30 days from the date of expiration of the domain name, it is possible to quickly restore the operation of the domain. To do this, you can press the button in the control panel "Domain renewal on credit», Which will allow you to restore the work of the domain name without payment, and then pay for the domain.
The domain will become available within 24 hours when the DNS server cache will be updated your provider.
No. After a few days, it will be removed from the registry and can be re-registered.