A DNS server (synonymous with name server) is a server that contains a database of public IP addresses and their associated hostnames. Typically, the DNS server acts as a translator, resolving or translating hostnames to IP addresses.
The result is a series of numbers that become a human-readable URL. DNS servers use special software and communicate with each other using separate protocols. As they process requests, they assign the correct IP address to the URL or the correct URL to the IP address.
The DNS has been an integral part of the Internet since 1985, thanks to the introduction of a "directory service" that is distributed around the world.
The abbreviation DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is a hierarchical decentralized directory for naming computers, services, or other resources that are connected to a global or separate network.
Visiting any site or server is possible by entering a specific IP in the browser. Typically, the user does not know this specific IP address. He only knows the URL, for example, www.ukraine.com.ua.
If a user enters this URL into their browser's address bar, it is sent to the domain server, which then redirects the user to the IP address bound to the URL. If the first service does not find a suitable destination, the request is redirected to the next DNS server.
The main nameserver managed by the ICANN system is the last option if no matches were made with previous nameservers. Most private users are automatically redirected to the ISP's DNS server when a request is made. Large corporations often have their own domain servers.
DNS shifts responsibility for assigning domain names to various Internet resources by specifying the relevant name servers for each domain. Responsible persons can also delegate permissions for subdomains of their assigned namespace to other servers. This scheme of work ensures a permanent decentralized distribution, and the system has been specially implemented to avoid centralized databases.
Server operation also defines the elements of the technological functionality of the database service that underlies it. It defines itself as part of the Internet Protocol Suite of the DNS protocol, and provides a detailed specification of data structures and information exchange flows between servers.
An analogy to a telephone directory can be used to understand how the server works.
DNS, handling various domain names, functions like the super-fast Internet phone book. It continuously searches and compares numbers, similar to looking up a name in a directory using a known telephone number (here, IP address).
Sometimes you can talk about the so-called reverse DNS lookup (rDNS), which is conducted by a URL. However, unlike the phone book, the DNS server can be quickly reconfigured so that if the network service changes location, the user can continue to use the same hostname. That is, if the right person from the telephone directory moved to another house, but kept the same phone number, you would still call him.
The main and fundamental role of a DNS server is its impact on decentralized Internet services such as cloud services and content delivery networks. The user accesses the decentralized internet service through the URL, for example the domain name of the URL is entered into the IP address of the nearest server.
The peculiarity of DNS is that different users receive different sessions for the same domain name at the same time. This process describes the main purpose of the proximal servers, and is also the key to surfing the Internet faster. Many major internet services use this option as well.
If you've ever set up a website, you probably also had to create a DNS record. To make your web content available "in real time", your domain should point to the web server for which the corresponding entry should be created.
Further, all data traffic is directed to your web server to start a session with your domain. However, if there are changes to this dataset, performance issues may arise.
Example: if you change the IP address of the web server, there is a chance that some of the data stream can no longer reach your server. This is because the DNS information of the resolving name servers is cached alongside your end users. This means that old data logging configurations can be viewed within minutes or even hours after changes.
All related domain records are called a DNS zone. It is a separate part of the domain namespace, which is usually the responsibility of a legal entity – the organization or company that is responsible for maintaining regional connections in the web space. The DNS zone is an administrative function that allows granular control over DNS components such as authoritative name servers.
When a web browser or other network device needs to find an IP address for a hostname, such as "example.com", it performs a DNS lookup - essentially a DNS zone check - and is sent to the DNS server that manages the zone specified in the address for this hostname. This server is called the official name server for the domain. The official name server then resolves the DNS lookup by providing the IP address or other details for the requested hostname.
The main servers divide the space of the zone into several parts. They define top-level domains (such as “.org” or “.com”), second-level domains (for example, “ukraine.com.ua”), and lower-level domains, also called subdomains (for example, “support.ukraine. com.ua "). Each of these levels can be a separate DNS zone.
For example, the root domain "ukraine.com.ua" is delegated to the Hosting Ukraine corporation. It assumes responsibility for setting up a primary DNS server that contains the correct DNS records for the domain.
At each hierarchical level of the DNS system, there is a name server that contains a zone file that stores secure and valid DNS records for that zone.
DNS servers can provide recursive and non-recursive (iterative) retrieval of names. The main difference is in the type of requests. In both cases, the client passes the hostname and specifies the type of request. The server only responds positively or negatively to name resolution.
It is easiest for the client to make a recursive request to the name server. In this case, the addressed server is responsible for full name resolution. It queries all servers sequentially until the name is fully resolved. The advantage of this type of request is that the resolver only has to initiate one request, accept the response, and forward it to the application.
In an iterative retrieval, the device only reports the address of the server to be requested next. The resolver must then make additional queries to the appropriate name server until the name is fully resolved.
In other words, in an iterative query, a DNS server takes an action if it cannot resolve a recursive DNS client query through its DNS cache and is not authoritative for the domains.
In this case, it sends an iterative request to the home server, which then sends it a link to the next possible DNS server. The local DNS server then sends an iterative query to the DNS server from the link. The process repeats until the local DNS server finds an authorizing DNS server to query. It then receives a response (true / false), which it then forwards to the DNS client .
Today, every average Internet user is familiar with the concept of an IP address. It is needed on the web all the time - but its processing while surfing always happens in the background. The term "IP address" itself means an abbreviation for the Internet Protocol. This protocol provides support for the device identification number on the network.
Most IP addresses look like this:
The address might also look like this:
3fеe: 1910: 4546: 3: 200: f8ff: fe21: 67еf
An IP address is a unique address that networked IT devices such as PCs, tablets and smartphones use to identify themselves and to communicate with other devices. To do this, they use a special technology such as Ethernet or Docsis, and at the hardware level - network cards or flash drives.
Each computer is assigned an IP address when it connects to the Internet. This is necessary so that the device can be clearly identified, since this is the only way to verify where the requests came from and where the data went.
Example: If a website is accessed from a computer, the browser always redirects its own IP address as well, so that the monitored web server not only knows which website it should go to, but where the requested data packet is sent.
The IP address is a machine language binary number, but it can be stored as text for readers.
The 32-bit type (IPv4) is written as four decimal numbers separated by periods. Each number can be between 0 and 255. For example, 184.108.40.206 could be a valid IP.
IPv6 addresses are 128-bit IP addresses, written in hexadecimal format, separated by colons.
An IP address is usually only assigned to a device for a specific period of time. Only a few network devices (such as cards or routers) need to store the system address (called the physical MAC address) because all other devices use a dynamic IP address to communicate.
Today there are two versions of the Internet Protocol. IPv4 with 4 billion addresses and IPv6 with so many addresses that it can address every grain of sand on earth. IPV4 has been depleted in many ways and has led to a slow migration to IPv6. IPv6 is supported by most large networks and devices today.
Whether using four or eight blocks of characters: strings of numbers are hard to remember. Moreover, you must remember not only your address, but also the address of your favorite sites, stores, etc. Since this is almost impossible, domain names and the domain name system were introduced.
This means: for example, to call www.ukraine.com.ua, you do not need to enter a code with a long number, you just need to enter the letters “www.ukraine.com.ua” in the search bar. Then your computer looks at the central "phone book" - Domain Name System (DNS) to find out which IP address belongs to that domain name and establishes a connection to the appropriate web server.
The principle of dynamic allocation means that the user can be identified directly from the IP address. If you want to be absolutely sure of your confidentiality and not accidentally share your data with anyone, you should remember the following tips:
interrupt your internet connection regularly to reassign the IP address;
since the IP address is contained in every email: do not send emails to dubious addresses (for example, this applies to some websites that attract free downloads);
think carefully about which services you use to log into the system using your username and password - then an IP address can be assigned to the visitor;
Use special anonymization software, such as the Tor extension for the Firefox browser, to hide geolocation and surfing behavior.
In conclusion, it can be noted that the principles of using DNS servers and unique IP addresses have become fundamental to the current digital age. Only thanks to them, the Internet has become a real habitat for modern people.
If DNS and IP such as IPv6 ever become outdated or out of date, it will definitely not be in the next decades.
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