Any large amount of data requires management. In the modern digital world, all valuable information is organized and entered into databases, which are managed by a DBMS and the SQL language.
SQL is a non-procedural database language focused on a large amount of information being processed. Non-procedural means that it primarily focuses on what data to call, delete or insert, and not how to do it. Quantitatively oriented means that with the help of this language you can process significant amounts of information in groups.
SQL was originally developed to support relational databases.
He can solve the following tasks:
Modification of a new or existing database structure.
Change system security settings.
Configuring user authority to manage information.
Getting information from the database.
Updating the content of the database.
SQL is only used to manage databases that support it. These include, for example, Microsoft Access, Oracle, Sybase, or Informix.
The syntax in SQL is relatively flexible, however, as in any programming language, certain rules must be followed:
Uppercase / lowercase letters.
Spaces and padding.
Actual SQL statements are not case sensitive. However, once a direct link to the contents of the database has been generated, the spelling must be followed exactly. The basis of an SQL expression is keywords organized into statements.
A database is an electronic information management system that must process large amounts of data continuously and efficiently, without contradictions and errors, and can digitally display logical relationships.
Datasets can be compiled from different subsets and displayed according to the requirements of application programs and their users.
Complex databases are often used in ERP systems (WWS or WaWi).
Currently, there are several types of database organizations, which are separated primarily by their relation to the management of units of records.
The hierarchical database model is the oldest database model and is represented as a hierarchical tree structure.
The hierarchical tree structure makes read access extremely fast. The disadvantage of tree-like links is that they themselves and the links between them must be written initially.
Basically, a networked database is similar to a hierarchical model, but allows you to create versatile nodes.
By connecting nodes to each other, a network is created through which the user can more directly access the desired data record. Network databases are well suited for mapping structures such as geographic location, semantic networks, personal networks, and company networks.
In this type of database, information is stored in relationships (tables), which are all mutually connected. Optimization of data in a table is performed by shortening rows and / or columns. Any information record is a string and contains all data fields in columns. This type of database is the most used in business solutions.
This type of database applies the principle of storing information together with their functions in an object. It uses OOP paradigms and, in particular, writing in an appropriate language (such as C ++, Java or C #).
There are also object databases, functional, object-relational, which combine the properties of the above types.
This is the newest type of database organization that uses machine learning principles to manage the data structure. These are self-managing databases that can maintain full functionality without administrator control and recover lost or damaged resources themselves.
The principles of database creation have undergone major changes since the first of them was implemented in 1962. Initially, navigation databases were used, which include types with a tree and network structure.
Over time, relational databases have replaced network databases, which are now used only for special tasks.
Graph systems, in turn, are a kind of further development of relational databases. They use graphs to display and store network information.
For several decades, the market has been dominated by three major RDBMS vendors: Oracle, IBM and Microsoft. However, the current dynamics of the market have brought about changes that have propelled the market and created more competition.
According to information for the first quarter of 2020, there are more than 250 different products in the world that offer relational or graph types of database organization. Moreover, more than 50 products use new types – NoSQL, which includes both cloud solutions and databases with an autonomous structure and support for machine intelligence.
In Excel, for example, you can enter data in a freely definable grid. They can be formatted as desired, for example, numbers can be displayed as currency or cells can be assigned a background color. There is also the concept of formulas that calculations can perform and update when the input data changes. This creates a certain interactivity.
The basic principle is that the data is taken from the so-called areas and shifted relative to each other. The disadvantage of table processing is that these areas must be predefined.
The organization of databases includes a wide range of terms, concepts and software. In the case of databases, we are talking primarily about systems that implement the concept of relational algebra.
Data processing in databases is also performed in tabular form. The difference is that the data schema is fixed in the database. The relationship diagram defines exactly in what format what data should be available. Unable to format data. Although design elements are available when processing tables, databases operate exclusively at the data level.
Instead, you work with what are called queries. The query can filter, calculate, group, and sort, and is much more flexible than Excel. In addition to tables, databases have so-called views, which have a structure similar to tables, but consist only of calculated or filtered data.
Database management systems (DBMS) are the central component of modern IT infrastructure. They support the storage, use and processing of data for a variety of applications.
Database operating systems such as Oracle, Informix, Sybase or MySQL are used to temporarily store data for modern applications and thus provide transactions and other types of interactions for business requirements at the level of both individual resources (sites) and at the level of enterprises and corporations.
Developed in 1993 by the Swedish company MySQL AB, this DBMS is an open source information management software.
The name consists of My (this is the name of one of the daughters of the co-founder of MySQL) and the SQL acronym.
Over the past seventeen years, MySQL has overtaken the competition to become the most popular system in the world. It is considered the fastest, most stable and convenient solution in the field of DBMS. It also offers a lot of flexibility: MySQL can be used on over 20 platforms including Linux, Windows and Mac OS.
MySQL is the foundation for dynamic sites such as blogs, art galleries or shops. For example, if you want to use WordPress as software for your blog or other resource, the main requirement is that your web hosting package provides MySQL support.
Due to the wide and frequent use of MySQL, the system has been constantly evolving and adapting to the needs of users.
This DBMS has the following advantages:
Can be used across multiple platforms.
Makes quick assessment of requests.
Can be used to work with large arrays.
It is licensed under the GPL (OpenSource).
Has support from a large community of users / developers.
Friendly for beginners.
Despite its widespread use, MySQL also has disadvantages, and usability is highly dependent on the area in which it is used.
Limited functionality compared to large database management systems.
Expensive license for commercial use.
Going forward, stand-alone databases promise to replace all existing types. Already, they provide increased security and reliability of data protection, and new machine learning algorithms make it possible to improve the efficiency of management of all processes.
They also easily implement all administration tasks. – from backups to regular software updates.
As more organizations are now embarking on digital transformation with mobile and cloud applications and demanding cloud or standalone databases, these systems will continually evolve and drive all other types out of the database market.
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