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What is ftp client and how to use it?

The FTP network protocol governs the conditions under which data is transferred between multiple machines / servers in a TCP / IP service. FTP clients are standard on most operating systems. They can be with or without a graphical user interface.

FTP is one of the oldest protocols in the TCP / IP world. It has been around since 1971 and was specified in RFC 959 in 1985. In a six-layer protocol distribution, it is considered an application layer that can be used to transfer information between a client and a server on the Internet. Using its internal commands, you can start uploading and downloading files, creating directories, or changing the names of files and directories.

How FTP works

All major data centers offer publicly available files and programs via FTP. For example, you can download Firefox using the command line via FTP. Individual FTP servers are accessible using the CMD command line operator on Windows computers or on Mac computers with standard Fetch.

FTP creates two logical links (two different streams of information) between client and server – control channel and data channel itself.

By launching a control channel with the server before starting a session, the client establishes a connection. Port number 21 is used for this on the server side. In the second step, a data connection is established over port 20 of the server. The client transmits commands through the control channel, the actual data is exchanged between the client and the server through a data connection.


How FTP works - hosting Ukraine


Security features of the data transfer protocol

The file transfer protocol can distinguish between active and passive modes when establishing a connection. Passive mode is used to enable users behind a NAT router and with a private IP address to establish a session on the server.

If the FTP client is behind a NAT router or firewall and has only a parallel private IPv4 address, the connection will fail. A server-to-client connection request is blocked by a firewall or router, and can be blocked altogether due to a private IPv4 address. In this case, passive FTP initiates the data channel.

FTP transfers data, technical information, as well as login and password in unencrypted form without additional measures. To provide secure authentication and data transfer, transport layer security can be used in conjunction with the protocol (FTP over SSL - FTPS). There is also an SSH-based alternative. This is called an SSH type FTP (SFTP).

Anonymous FTP

Many hosters allow anonymous access in the protocol. This access is known as anonymous FTP. If this access is activated, the user can log into the server with the username "anonymous" and any password. He is then free to navigate the server directory and download the released files. An anonymous user is generally not allowed to delete or rename files or directories.

Client Login

To configure FTP, you need to enter the client's zone using a registered e-mail and password and select a hosting package with the FTP server, the settings of which you will change.

The FTP client is a standard component on almost all operating systems. The windows ftp client can be logged in through the cmd command line interface. In addition, there are many graphic options for clients – for example, the best ftp client is Filezilla, which lets you manipulate and execute commands with the mouse. In the server directories, these clients appear similar to the local file manager. Web browsers also handle ftp client functions online. Server pages are accessible by typing "ftp:// ." before the domain name.


How FTP works - hosting Ukraine


Initially, to establish communication with the protocol, user identification is required using a login and password. Depending on the saved rights of the respective user, the files can be read, modified or deleted. The client either actively ends the session, or the server closes the connection after it times out.

Basically, data can be transferred in ASCII and binary mode using the file transfer protocol. TCP takes over error control during data transmission. Canceled sessions can be resumed by the file transfer protocol thanks to restart marking. There is a separate set of commands for uploading, extracting, renaming or deleting files, or for configuring, changing, and deleting directories.

Hosting selection

In a web environment, a protocol is used to represent any kind of information from individual resources on a server. Hosting clients can transfer data to the web server from a computer in the hosting provider's data center.

When choosing hosting, to get to the control panel or cPanel you need to log in and go to the "Services" tab. If you do not have an account, you can create one in the "Registration" section

FTP access to servers Hosting Ukraine through FileZilla


Create FTP account

To how to create a new FTP registration, log in to your control panel and select "Services" at the top, and then open your original registration. When navigating on the left, click Advanced and then FTP. FTP access must be enabled to create the appropriate FTP accounts.

  • Choose "create FTP account"

  • Next, click on "Create a password protected FTP account with read / write access" and click "Next".

  • Enter the username for the FTP account you are creating.

Remember – by default, the FTP account is not associated with e-mail accounts.

  • Enter a secure password and confirm it. You can also click the Create button to have the service quickly generate a secure password.

Along the way, you indicate where the folder with data for FTP access is located. Also, it should be borne in mind that the server does not have access to higher levels, which increases the security of use.

Selecting ftp accounts

If you are sharing your site with other people or hosting subdomains for other users, you can create separate FTP accounts. This allows you to provide other people with separate access to data on the website (or parts of it) without having to provide them with the password for the main account.

When connecting with a separate FTP account, you give other users access to a specific folder on the server. You can allow them to enter by specifying additional hosts or their IP addresses.

To create an additional FTP account:

  • Login to the hosting administration

  • Open "Websites and Domain Names" and select "FTP Access".

  • Select "Add FTP Account".

Complete the following items:

  • FTP account name. Enter the desired name.

  • Base directory. Select the directory to which the user will be redirected when connecting to the FTP account.

  • Enter your FTP password.

Storage size (hard disk quota) (in case of Windows hosting). If you want to change the amount of disk space on the server that can be used by the user of a separate FTP account, you must select the "Unlimited" checkbox in the "Storage quota" field. Remember - the desired storage size must be specified in megabytes.

  • Read permission (Windows hosting). If you want to allow the FTP user to view the contents of the base directory and download files from that directory, select the checkbox to allow reading the files.

  • Write authorization (Windows hosting). If you want to allow the FTP user to create, view, modify and delete files and partitions in the base directory, check the box with write permission.

In the absence of any permissions, a connection to the FTP account will be established, but the contents of the base directory will not be shown to the user (with Windows hosting).

How to change the properties of an additional FTP account:

  • Go to the "Websites & Domain Names" section and select "FTP Access".

  • Select the required FTP account in the section.

  • Make the necessary changes and click "Accept".

How to delete an additional FTP account:

  • Go to "Websites & Domain Names" and click on FTP Access.

  • Check the checkbox for the FTP account you want to remove and click Remove. Please be aware that the main FTP registration account cannot be deleted.

  • Select “Accept” to confirm the deletion.

Technical settings for ftp accounts

From cPanel, you can download an automatic configuration file that contains the technical FTP settings.

Whether you are using cPanel, ISP manager, or Filezilla, you can enable or disable SSH access for this account, as well as determine the amount of disk space for other users. You can also allow uploading only certain file types and sizes.

Remember - if you have not connected your domains to the root directory in domain management, you must copy the data to the appropriate directory in the html section. for example html / content /.

Please note that a domain connected to such a subdirectory cannot refer to folders of the same level by relative paths (for example, not to html / cgi-bin /, but to html / content / cgi-bin /).

In conclusion, it is worth noting that your ability to correctly work with accounts and upload files via FTP will reduce the time for updating any site and improve the management of both text and graphic materials.

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